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Unit 7. Present perfect 1 (I have done).




Unit 7; Part A

galka.jpgStudy this example situation:
7.1.jpgTom is looking for his key. He can't find it.
He has lost his key.

He has lost his key = He lost it recently, and he still doesn't have it.

Have/has lost is the present perfect simple:

I/we/they/you   have    (= I've etc.)
finished
lost
done
been  etc.
he/she/it   has    (= he's etc.)

The present perfect simple is
have/has + past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided etc.), but many important verbs are irregular (lost/done/written etc.).

For a list of irregular verbs, see Appendix 1.

Unit 7; Part B

galka.jpgWhen we say that 'something has happened', this is usually new information:
•  Ow! I've cut my finger.
•  The road is closed. There's been (there has been) an accident.

•  (from the newsPolice have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.

When we use the present perfect, there is a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now:

•  'Where's your key?'    'I don't know. I've lost it.'  (= I don't have it now)
•  He told me his name, but I've forgotten it.  (=I can't remember it now)
•  'Is Sally here?'    'No, she's gone out.'  (= she is out now)
•  I can't find my bag. Have you seen it?  (= Do you know where it is now?)

Unit 7; Part C

galka.jpgYou can use the present perfect with just, already and yet.
Just = a short time ago:
•  'Are you hungry?'    'No, I've just had lunch.'
•  Hello. Have you just arrived?


We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected:

•  'Don't forget to send the letter.'    'I've already sent it.'
•  'What time is Mark leaving?'    'He's already gone."


Yet = until now. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences:
•  Has it stopped raining yet?
•  I've written the letter, but I haven't sent it yet.

Unit 7; Part D

galka.jpgNote the difference between gone (to) and been (to):

• 
Jim is on holiday. He has gone to Italy. 
(= he is there now or on his way there)
•  Jane is back home now. She has been to Italy.  (= she has now come back)



Exercises

flag.jpgRead the situations and write sentences. Use the following verbs:
Key.2    She's broken her leg. / She has broken ...
3    The bus fare has gone up.
4    Her English has improved.
5    He's grown a beard. / He has grown ...
6    The letter has arrived.
7    The temperature has fallen.

 
arrive       break        fall       go up       grow        improve       lose 
 

1    Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.
2    Margaret can't walk and her leg is in plaster.
3    Last week the bus fare was 80 pence. Now it is 90.
4    Maria's English wasn't very good. Now it is better.
5    Dan didn't have a beard before. Now he has a beard.
6    This morning I was expecting a letter. Now I have it.
7    The temperature was 20 degrees. Now it is only 12.        
 He has lost his key.       
She                                
The bus fare                    
Her English                     
He                                  
The letter                         
The                                 
flag.jpgRead the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet.
Key.2    he's just gone out / he has just gone out
3    I haven't finished yet.
4    I've already done it. /I have already done it.
5    Have you found a place to live yet?
6    I haven't decided yet.
7    she's just come back / she has just come back


1    After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says, 'Would you like something to eat?'
      You say:  No thank you.  I've just had lunch. (have lunch)
2    Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says, 'Can I speak to Joe?'
      You say:  I'm' afraid _______________. (go out)
3    You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away.
      You say:  Wait a minute! _______________. (not / finish)
4    You are going to a restaurant tonight. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says, 'Shall I phone to reserve a table." 
      You say:  No, _______________. (do it)
5    You know that a friend of yours is looking for a place to live. Perhaps she has been successful. Ask her.
      You say: _______________? (find)
6    You are still thinking about where to go for your holiday. A friend asks, 'Where are you going for your holiday?'
      You say: _______________. (not /decide)
7    Linda went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks, 'Is Linda still at the bank?'
      You say:  No, _______________. (come back)
flag.jpgPut in been or gone.
Key.2    been
3    gone
4    gone
5    been


1    Jim is on holiday. He's  gone  to Italy.
2    Hello! I've just ___________ to the shops. I've bought lots of things.
3    Alice isn't here at the moment. She's ___________ to the shop to get a newspaper.
4    Tom has ___________ out. He'll be back in about an hour.
5    'Are you going to the bank?'    'No, I've already ___________ to the bank.'


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